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Preventing, Detecting and Treating HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis: Health Promotion and Risk/Harm Reduction in Substance Abuse Treatment

NCJ Number
Date Published
May 2021

This training manual for jail/prison and aftercare staff resourced under the federal Residential Substance Abuse Treatment (RSAT) Initiative focuses on ways to prevent, detect, and treat HIV/AIDS and viral hepatitis, which pose risks for persons with substance-use disorders (SUDs).


RSAT programs serve a population at high risk for HIV infection and viral hepatitis B and C. The rate of HIV among sentenced individuals in custody is five to seven times that of the general population, composing about 25 percent of all HIV-positive persons in the United States. Ensuring that RSAT clients are screened and tested for HIV and other infectious diseases is an important component of the RSAT treatment model. This training manual provides RSAT staff with the information needed to participate in a team approach to prevention education intended to reduce the risk of HIV transmission and to support individuals with HIV. RSAT staff should be prepared to familiarize participants with testing procedures, explain the benefits of knowing their HIV status, and support the coordination of care for HIV-positive persons re-entering communities. The manual emphasizes the role community-based HIV programs can have in supporting the re-entry population. HIV prevention programs are also key partners in reducing the threat of opioid overdose, injection drug use, and hepatitis C infection. This updated edition contains current information on the prevalence of HIV/AIDS and related epidemiological data that compare the general population and correctional populations. New information is provided on best practices. 35 references and appended sample programs

Date Published: May 18, 2021