U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government, Department of Justice.

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Community Health Specialists Within Gender-Responsive Probation Supervision

NCJ Number
Feminist Criminology Volume: 18 Issue: 5 Dated: 2023 Pages: 406-434
Date Published
29 pages

The authors present the methodology and outcomes of a randomized controlled trial aimed at assessing the experiences of women probationers who engaged in gender-responsive supervision with community health supports; they also discuss some recommendations on gender-responsive probation and the integration of public health staff.


This paper reports on a randomized controlled trial that was conducted to assess the experiences of women probationers engaged in gender-responsive supervision with community health supports versus ‘gender-responsive supervision as usual.’ Treatment group participants engaged in a new supervision model in a large metropolitan county in a Western state which was created to improve their specific responsivity needs as well as public health supports. The Women’s Reentry Assessment, Programming, and Services (WRAPS) model included enhanced wraparound, gender-responsive, and trauma-informed supervision that incorporated Community Health Specialists (CHSs) working alongside probation officers. Although the WRAPS intervention did not reduce recidivism relative to the control group, there is evidence that gender-responsive probation supervision does reduce recidivism overall when compared to baseline. Findings from interview data indicated strong support for gender-responsive probation in general and the WRAPS model in particular. Clients and staff viewed the CHS role as highly impactful in addressing women’s specific responsivity needs and supporting women’s success. The paper also provides recommendations surrounding gender-responsive probation and integration of public health staff. Publisher Abstract Provided

Date Published: January 1, 2023