The Global Justice Extensible Markup Language Data Model (GJXDM) is an XML standard designed to create a uniform method for law enforcement and judicial agencies to exchange criminal justice information in a timely manner.
GJXDM removes the burden from agencies to independently create exchange standards. Its extensibility allows for flexibility to deal with unique agency requirements and changes. GJXDM is an object-oriented data model for organizing the content of a data dictionary, the Global Justice XML Data Dictionary (GJXDD), in a database. From this database, an XML schema specification can be generated that consistently represents the semantics and structure of common data elements and types required for information exchange within the justice and public safety communities. There are three primary parts to the GJXDM: the Data Dictionary (identifying content and meaning), the Data Model (defining structure and organization), and the Component Reuse Repository (a database).
The work accomplished to date, based on participation by practitioners from the justice and public safety communities, has resulted in the creation of a data model that can be used to generate data schema which will facilitate information sharing among the various jurisdictions of those communities. This was done in a manner that reduced the cost of developing the technical solutions required, simplified the process and associated products, and enhanced the interoperability quotient of the end product. The approach combines successful practices in data modeling with recent technology standards for XML schema.
Proactive information sharing promotes public safety by allowing users to make accurate and rapid decisions. GJXDM lets users share critical information better and faster, and reduce costs and overcome delays in case management. GJXDM provides for electronic data sharing in a simple automatic process between previously incompatible systems.
The automation revolution led to piecemeal interoperability, individual software applications that were programmed to only serve a single agency or a group of agencies. This approach did not take into account the need to share information between agencies with different applications. Yet the need to share information is now important as ever.
Exchange of information can be accomplished between different applications by using a uniform standard, regardless of computer system or platform. Luckily, this is exactly what XML allows. Global Justice XML Data Model is an XML markup-language that serves this purpose for law enforcement and related agencies. GJXDM has a standard Justice specific vocabulary and agreed to objects that all agencies can use to describe information. Below is a scenario which illustrates how the useof GJXDM yields the best possible result for lawenforcement.
A local police officer conducts a routine traffic stop for speeding. When the police officer approaches the car, he discovers that there is a young female passenger alongside the male driver. Thereafter, the police officer enters the driver's information into his mobile data computer. Immediately the system queries all participating neighboring jurisdictions and agencies, besides his local district, for any information concerning the driver. Information is returned from a state Sex Offender Registry that the driver is a registered sex offender who is prohibited from being the company of any child under the age of 16. Further, the officer also receives information from the Department of Corrections that there is a warrant for the driver's arrest because he is wanted for not registering with them. It turns out that the passenger is actually a 12 year old girl, so the driver is arrested based on both pieces of information obtained using GJXDM. Without GJXDM, the driver might have just received a speeding ticket. Luckily the XML technology, GJXDM, allowed for the quick and easy transfer of information between the local police officer's computer and the systems of all the other appropriate agencies.
The scenario provided is only one of many examples of how the exchange of information is crucial in ensuring justice. The XML enhanced data sharing provides for a common framework to improve data and information sharing. And as XML is increasingly being adapted as the IT standard globally, more tools will become available to work with XML. Also, XML is a very adaptable language, since it works on top of most existingservers (nothing needs to be replaced to work withXML).
US Dept. of Justice GJXDM Website: https://bja.ojp.gov/program/it/national-initiatives/gjxdm
US Dept. of Justice Information Sharing Initiative: https://bja.ojp.gov/program/it/national-initiatives
Yes, there is. The GJXDM User Guide can be located via the following URL:
Another good source of information is the GlJXDM Developer's Workshop Online Training Materials Website that contains all of the presentations, training materials, and recorded audio/video streams from the workshop held at Georgia Tech in Atlanta May 11-12, 2004.
The GJXDM consists primarily of object classes and properties. The Object classes are converted into XML Schema types. They eache represent a specific syntax and structure for a set of values. The properties are converted into XML Schema attributes and elements. They each represent characteristics, or values of things.
The GJXDM is a reference model that is based on a class hierarchy of many specific objects (xsd:type) derived from one very general object (SuperType). Each object contains any number of properties (xsd:element or xsd:attribute). These properties may be simple or complex elements (containing sub-elements). The highest level object classes (under the SuperType) are PersonType, OrganizationType, PropertyType (i.e., things), LocationType, ContactInformationType (i.e., electronic means of contact), ActivityType, DocumentType, and other smaller supporting types.
There is also a special class of RelationshipType used to specify meaning to a link between two object instances. On many of these objects, there are metadata properties (xsd:element or xsd:attribute) that supplement meaning. For example, all properties of MeasureType have a mandatory "units" attribute.
The components were chosen from a variety of legal and technical sources that preceded Global Justice XML Data Model (GJXDM). Data components were built from approximately 35 data dictionaries, XML schema documents, and XML data models under development or in use by various law enforcement and judicial organizations.
These sources yielded approximately 16,000 data components (elements, attributes, and types). Through study and analysis of the similarities and differences among these components, approximately 2,200 properties (xsd:element, xsd:attribute) and 550 types (xsd:type) were synthesized to represent a common set of elements and types, the GJXDM.
It is important to realize that the authors did not invent the content. Instead, the GJXDM tries to capture the requirements of the 35 data sources as completely and accurately as possible. However, compromises were necessary in order to follow the basic design principles and criteria set forth by the XML Structure Task Force (XSTF).
The source data requirements analyzed by the XML Structure Task Force (XSTF) were not consistent in their use of codes. For components with the same meaning, some sources used codes; others used literals. When codes were used, they were not always drawn from the same code table, and some code tables are specific to local jurisdictions.
In order to provide maximum flexibility, the GJXDM usually provides both a code type element and a text type element (that may contain a literal). There are particular code tables that are always common; for example National Criminal Information Center (NCIC)-2000 and the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA). Therefore, the XSTF provided a mechanism to use codes from other namespaces. This enables the use of standards without restriction to a single internal set of values.
This also does not require a change to the GJXDM namespace every time external standards change. For example, the XSTF has created an NCIC-2000 schema in its own namespace that contains the NCIC code tables. Temporarily, the XSTF refers to this as the NCIC-2000 proxy schema because it is external to the GJXDM namespace and can be updated without causing the GJXDM to change. The XSTF anticipates that local jurisdictions will want to create their own proxy schemas for their local code tables as well.
Reference elements exist to allow schema designs with multiple occurrences of the same information object or instance to reference a single content-filled object rather than to repeat it in different locations.
This ensures that the same information object does not repeat multiple times and mislead the receiver into thinking there are multiple (different) objects. If an object is recorded once and referenced from everywhere else it is used, then there is a lower risk of misunderstanding or inconsistency. This requires one XML element of type ReferenceType for each element in the model. That is, for every element named "X" in GJXDM, there is a second element named "XReference" that is intended to reference, or "point to", an element named X appearing elsewhere in the instance.
While this technique makes the GJXDM somewhat redundant, the use of separate elements for bearing content and content references makes it easier for applications to know immediately if and when they are looking at the information object itself or a reference to it.
A GJXDM or NIEM reference Information Exchange Package Documentation (IEPD) is a specification for a model document or transaction that has been derived from and uses the GJXDM / NIEM. It is currently considered a suggested model for a particular kind of document.
For example, an Arrest Warrant reference Information Exchange Package Documentation (IEPD) uses the GJXDM, is specified in XML Schema, and is a reference for building an Arrest Warrant. This means that it can be used as is, or extended for a more specific or local purpose, or to guide construction of another similar document specification. There also some examples of reference IEPDs that use the NIEM such as, SAR for Local and State Entities IEPD v1.1.
A "reference" is a starting point for a standard, not a rigid, fixed standard. For more information on reference Information Exchange Packages, see Reference Information Exchange Package Schemas.
GJXDM versions are numbered by three integers X, Y, and Z delimited by periods (X.Y.Z).
Each integer represents a particular class of change:
X = Major revisions to the model or representations of the model as rendered in a schema (as XML or other markup)
Y = Minor changes that do not maintain forward compatibility
Z = Minor changes that maintain forward compatibility
A version number should NOT be confused with decimal numbers. X, Y, and Z are integers, not digits, and may become greater than 9. For example, 4.89.113 is a legitimate release number (though not likely to ever be used).
GJXDM version 3.0 is the first operational release. Version 3.0 instances will be forward compatible with and validate using the version 3.0.2 schema or appropriate 3.0.2 schema subsets. See the question on compatibility for more details. Prereleases used four numbers to designate versions. There were only four prereleases: 188.8.131.52, 184.108.40.206, 220.127.116.11, and 18.104.22.168. Except for 22.214.171.124, prereleases are still available, but are no longer maintained or supported.
Note that specific person role types (like CaseOfficialType) extend PersonType, and so automatically inherit all of the properties of PersonType. Since element sequence follows the inheritance hierarchy, in an XML instance, the PersonType information would appear first, followed by the CaseOfficialType information.